The combination of TMS and EEG has the potential to capture relevant features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathophysiology. We used a machine learning framework to explore time-domain features characterizing AD patients compared to age-matched healthy controls (HC). More than 150 time-domain features including some related to local and distributed evoked activity were extracted from TMS-EEG data and fed into a Random Forest (RF) classifier using a leave-one-subject out validation approach. The best classification accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and F1 score were of 92.95%, 96.15%, 87.94% and 92.03% respectively when using a balanced dataset of features computed globally across the brain. The feature importance and statistical analysis revealed that the maximum amplitude of the post-TMS signal, its Hjorth complexity and the amplitude of the TEP calculated in the window 45–80 ms after the TMS-pulse were the most relevant features differentiating AD patients from HC. TMS-EEG metrics can be used as a non-invasive tool to further understand the AD pathophysiology and possibly contribute to patients’ classification as well as longitudinal disease tracking.
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